Anterior border layer– iris color layer. In a blue iris, it is thin (little pigment); in brown eyes, it is thick and pigmented.
Anterior endothelium – single layer of microscopic flattened cells. It is a continuation of the posterior surface of the cornea Anxiety-Tetanic Structure – circles and arcs spread throughout the eye; contraction furrows. They also have furrows radiating outward (radial furrows). These rings and grooves are from stresses and anxiety patterns from many generations. Asparagus Lacuna – usually in the lower 1/2 and means predisposition to chronic degenerative condition with a tendency toward malignancy. Topostabile (it is where it is.)
Biliary or mixed constitution - gastro-intestinal area; radial furrows may be present – also referred to as THE TRANSITORY EYE.
Cardiac Risk Sign (Lacuna) – transversal that runs from spleen to heart (it must point towards the heart). Person is more prone to sudden heart problems. (Topolabile – it doesn’t encroach on the heart zone.)
Central Heterochromia – pigmentation concentrated at the collarette in large amounts. Underactivity of gastric secretions – liver, gall bladder and pancreas disturbances.
Choroid – long, thin, pigmented tissues (mainly blood vessels) that feed the outer retina
Cigar lacuna – could indicate a tumor or growth in digestive area – it may be in the pancreas or encroaching on the collarette.
Ciliary Body – the portion of the Choroid extending into the iris. It is the area of the iris outside the collarette to the iris edge. (Where you see the iris fibers). It channels nutrients to the iris and produces the aqueous humor.
Closed Lacuna - closed on both ends; topostabile genetic marker; if dark and fiber structure is pulled down, it’s more difficult to pull toxins out of a closed lacuna, and difficult to get nutrients in.
Conjunctiva – the mucous membrane that lines the eyelids
Connective Tissue Structure – loose fibers; person would have more weakness such as spinal subluxations or organ prolapses
Contraction Furrows - nerve rings – anxiety titanic subtype. They are caused by the buckling of the trabeculae in the ciliary zone due to prolonged contraction of the dilator muscle.

Cornea – transparent continuation of the sclera covering the front of the eye.
Crypt - diamond shape genetic marker; indicates long term, deeply seated toxins. This means degenerative conditions or chronic conditions. Found directly inside or outside of the collarette. Dark signs - Over relaxed stroma – exposed stroma layer.
• Gray – slight, not very significant
• Dark gray – harder to resolve because of less vital force – can be inherited or be through suppression. Toxic residue in the tissues – waste deposits induce a degenerative process in the organ
• White signs change to dirty white, gray, yellow or brown and become chronic
• Black – most degenerative and less able to dispel toxins. Defect of substance – small crypts that look like slits or pencil points – anywhere in the iris. Indicate nutrition is poor where the sign is located
Density = Resistance = structural integrity
Dilator muscle – a highly enervated, longitudinal muscle that lies anterior to the posterior epithelium. The sympathetic nervous system moves it to dilate the pupil
Febrile Constitution – Blue white color – hyperactive, oozing conditions; skin problems such as seborrhea.
Ferrum Chromatose - tiger striping indicates liver weaknesses, poor iron absorption Half lacuna – in the heart area, shows muscle weakness, respiration and affects heart muscle. Respiration and/or Digestion is affecting heart muscle.
Health Equation - Physical inheritance + environment + spiritual +age = Health Hematogenic – pure brown iris; imbalance of the blood composition, blood-making components and blood circulation. Honeycomb Lacuna – webbing or small crypts connected; most commonly found in the nutritive zone (pupillary zone). If dark inside, it will indicate lowered vitality where it is found; if it is found in the pancreas or liver or nutritive zone or wherever, it will be a good environment for parasites. Do parasite cleanses starting 2 days before the full moon. Hydrogenoid – (hydro=water so they have drainage problems) and are predisposed to allergies; Tophi signify hydrogenoid
Inferior – at the bottom Iris Topography of Structures and Functions
A. Pupil
B. Pupillary Border – central nervous system
C. Pupillary Zone – nutritive zone (stomach, intestines)
D. Collarette – autonomic Nerve Wreath
E. Inner ciliary zone or humoral zone – fluids, lymph and blood
F. Mid- ciliary zone – major organs and utilization zone.
G. Outer- ciliary zone – bones, skin, external blood and lymph – detoxification and elimination Lacunae – inherited signs of energy insufficiency that don’t necessarily indicate a disease.
Leaf lacuna – a closed lacuna with veins; always found in pancreas, adrenal, gallbladder – the organs of secretion.
Light signs - show building, growth, reaction, irritability – good vital force
Lymphatic Constitution – mucus afflictions, congested lymph and predisposition to an overactive immune system. Lipemic Diathesis or Corneal Arcus
1. Arcus Senilis, Lipemic Ring, Cholesterol Ring
2. Chemical imbalance
3. Liver dysfunction; glucose metabolism
4. Mineral deficiencies Medusa or jellyfish lacuna – usually in bronchial, lung, kidney; thought to be cancerous sign and signifies family history of pathology in corresponding area – recommend pap smear, etc.
Medial – nasal is closest to the nose

Minor Arterial Circle (Autonomic Nerve wreath or collarette) – a vascular arterial formation in a ring around the pupillary zone – intestines and autonomic nerve wreath.
Neurogenic Structure – straight and tight fibers; physically strong
Neuronal Netting Lacuna – Fishnet; Anxiety in when found in lung area; A “network” of fine fibers below the iris surface. Topostabile.
Open lacunae - open on the end, most often in the mucous membrane zones such as lungs, kidneys, genitalia, bronchus, throat, sinuses. Open lacunae in the heart is a genetic sign for weakness in the heart.
Over acid Constitution – light blue is the color of their eye and it doesn’t change; usually problems with acidic constitution.
Perifocal lightening - appears as a white band bordering a lacuna, showing inflammation in the local area of long standing Pigments of the iris - Pigments are spots of color that increase focus on certain areas. Pigments indicate susceptibility to stress. It can be topostabile.
1. Orange - pancreas, possible liver
2. Fluorescent orange – gallbladder, pancreas, or liver disturbance
3. Straw yellow – kidney disturbances
4. Dark brown – liver Pinguecula – Deposit of yellow to clear fatty tissue on the sclera; disturbed fat metabolism. Pterygium – Thickened translucent to white tissue growing over the iris believed to be caused by overexposure to sun, wind, etc. Possible fungal growth.
Pink radials (or vascularized vessels) - associated with great congestion and more weakened conditions in the area
Polyglandular Structure – has at least 3 lacunae attached to the collarette; reflects hormonal and endocrine gland deficiencies
Polypose lacuna – If it pushes into the collarette, it indicates intestinal polyps. Topostabile to the intestines; indicates sinus problems. They can sniff bayberry and goldenseal or put into the neti pot.
Posterior epithelium - darkly pigmented iris layer. It prevents light from penetrating through the iris. This black layer can also be seen in crypts, lacunae and fiber rarifications.
Pupillary border - the small, darker border surrounding the border of the pupil. Pupillary sphincter – a muscular band innervated by the parasympathetic nervous system which causes the pupil to get smaller. It is referred to as the “stomach ring” when it becomes visible through weak fibers. A white stomach ring is acid; a grey ring in under acid. Radial Fibers – blood vessels coated with a sheath of tissue. Also called Trabeculae.
Radial Furrows - radii solaris – shows a decreased nerve supply to the digestive and intestinal tract which leaves the corresponding area of the iris vulnerable to toxins.
Reflexives – white stroma fibers that are raised and protrude. They suggest an acute reaction or irritation and indicate that the body has enough energy to release toxins. Possible fevers as the body fights.
Rarefaction – open fibers, separation of fibers; indicates decreased vitality in that area, decreased density
Retina – extension of the optic nerve and the receptor for visual expressions
Roof tile lacuna – stair step; genetic marker. A “network” of fine fibers below the iris surface. Topostabile. A more serious sign Schnabel lacuna or beak lacuna –abdominal area and indicates weakness of nerve supply; if it breaks through the collarette or flattens, it is more serious.
Sclera – white tissue, visible as the “eyeball”; protects the inner parts of the eyeball Scurf Rim Constitution – dark rim on the outside of the iris; sluggish skin elimination; need to sweat.
Sectoral Heterochromia – section of opposite pigmentation in the iris; genetic marker. For example, a brown sector in a blue iris
Shading – Formula: Shading=Reactivity=Vital Force. Shows the ability of the organism to react, disburse toxins, and compensate.
Stroma – iris fibers. A trabecula is an individual fiber within the stroma and they run radially. Superior – at the top
Temporal – closest to the temple
Tobacco snuffing – little dark red- brown dots – indicate liver and are TopolabileTopo Labile - Iris marking that indicates a weakness in specific organ but can be found anywhere in the iris. Significance is determined by its structure or color, not by location. For example, a brown pigment indicates liver weakness, even near the heart area. Topo Stabile - Marking found in the iris in a specific area of the body which affects that related part of the body. In other words, a marking found in the liver area which specifically means a weakness in the liver (brown pigment)
Trabecula – (trabeculae pl.) an individual fiber within the stroma layer which runs radially.
Transversals - appear askew to the normal direction of fibers. They show congestion and a possible sclerotic, a hardening of an organ or tissue, especially due to an excessive growth of fibrous tissue.
Tulip lacuna – Attached to the collarette usually; but can be found anywhere – glandular problems.
Uric Acid Diathesis Subtype – elevated uric acid; ask who had gout in their family history (black cherry juice and avoid high protein meats.
Vitreous Humor – gel between the lens and the retina in the back of the eye; it is about 98% water.
White Iris Signs – show overstimulation and hyperactivity. The stroma (vascular) layer has become swollen because of congestion